Table 3.

Flight costs of nectarivorous birds, measured during hovering or mixed flight (hovering and forward flight), and non-nectarivorous birds conducting forward flapping flight

SpeciesMass (kg)Flight cost (W)Type of flightMethodReference
Nectarivores
   Stellula calliope0.0020.88HoverRespirLasiewski (1963)
   Selasphorus sasin0.0031.62HoverRespirPearson (1950)
   Selasphorus sasin0.0032.27HoverRespirLasiewski (1963)
   Calypte anna0.0041.61HoverRespirPearson (1950)
   Calypte anna0.0042.05HoverRespirLasiewski (1963)
   Selasphorus ruphus0.0051.98HoverRespirLasiewski (1963)
   Nectarinia osea0.0061.64Mixed (short)13C bicarbonateThis study
   Eulampis jugularis0.0082.1MixedWTRHainsworth and Wolf (1969)
   Lichmera indistincta0.0091.51 (all seasons)MixedRespirCollins and Briffa (1983a,b)
   Nectarinia kilimensis0.0154.09MixedRespirWolf et al. (1975)
   Meliphaga virescens0.0242.46MixedRespirCollins and Morellini (1979)
Non-nectarivores
   Parus montanus0.0123.19ForwardDLWCarlson and Moreno (1992)
   Riparia riparia0.0131.6ForwardDLWWesterterp and Bryant (1984)
   Taeniopygia guttata0.0136.6Forward (Short)DLWNudds and Bryant (2000)
   Taeniopygia guttata0.0142.24Forward13C bicarbonateHambly et al. (2002)
   Delichon urbica0.0181.26ForwardDLWWesterterp and Bryant (1984)
   Erithacus rubecula0.0197.11Forward (Short)DLWTatner and Bryant (1986)
   Fringilla coelebs0.0224.25ForwardMass lossDol'nik and Gavrilov (1971)
   Fringilla montifringilla0.0234.61ForwardMass lossDol'nik and Gavrilov (1971)
   Pyrrhula pyrrhula0.0305.61ForwardMass lossDol'nik and Gavrilov (1971)
   Hylocichla fucescens0.0324.53ForwardMass lossHussell (1969)
   Melopsittacus undulatus0.0354.3ForwardWTRTucker (1968)
   Progne subis0.0514.07ForwardDLWUtter and LeFebvre (1970)
   Sturnus vulgaris0.07020.5Forward (Short)13C bicarbonateThis study
   Sturnus vulgaris0.0739.15ForwardWTRTorre-Bueno and LaRochelle (1978)
   Sturnus vulgaris0.08512.65ForwardWTRWard et al. (2001)
   Falco tinnunculus0.21314.6ForwardDLWMasman and Klaassen (1987)
  • Respir, respirometry; WTR, wind tunnel respirometry; DLW, doubly labelled water technique.