Table 2.

Comparison of elongated body theory with particle image velocimetry

Lateral impulse*
Type 26.17 4,8 <0.001
PVR with PDIV 50.37 1,8 <0.001
PVR with KEBT 58.47 1,8 <0.001
PVR with KRES 90.03 1,8 <0.001
PVR with KBOTH 31.92 1,8 <0.001
Type × speed1.6448,160.189
Individual 92.12 2,1238 <0.001
PTOT with KEBT 7.90 1,4 0.048
PLAT with KEBT 0.11 1,4 0.753
Type × speed1.034,80.446
Individual 4.91 2,744 0.008
  • Bold indicates a significant effect. Planned comparisons are listed individually under the effect `Type'. *N=1285; random effect; N=771; PVR, impulse estimated from particle image velocimetry (PIV) data assuming small core vortex rings; PDIV, impulse estimated from PIV data by direct integration of vorticity; KEBT, impulse estimated from kinematics by elongated body theory; KRES, impulse estimated from kinematics by a resistive model; KBOTH, sum of KEBT and KRES; PTOT, total power from PIV data; PLAT, power including only contributions from lateral flow from PIV data; KEBT, power estimated from elongated body theory.