Table 2.

Species in which tongue aiming ability was examined, including the number of animals observed, presence or absence of aiming, maximum tongue angle when aiming, mean angle of tongue deviation after unilateral m. genioglossus denervation (when prey is presented directly in front of the frog) and direction of deviation after unilateral denervation

SpeciesNAimingMaximum tongue angleUnilateral m. genioglossusSide of deviation
      Bufo woodhousii3No00No deviation
      Rana pipiens3Little520Active side
      Breviceps mossambicus7Yes83
      Callulina kreffti4Yes52
      Probreviceps sp.1Yes44
      Platypelis tuberifera1Yes29
      Dyscophus guineti5Yes536Inactive side
      Dermatonotus muelleri5Yes10947Inactive side
      Gastrophryne olivacea5Yes777Inactive side
      Gastrophryne carolinensis2Yes48
      Hypopachus variolosus1Yes42
      Kaloula pulchra5Yes329Inactive side
      Microhyla achatina3Yes53
      Microhyla pulchra9Yes
      Phrynomantis bifasciatus20Yes10344Inactive side
      Phrynomantis microps3Yes
      Scaphiophryne calcarata1Yes23
      Scaphiophryne gottlebei3Yes
      Scaphiophryne marmorata2Yes62Inactive side
      Scaphiophryne pustulosa7Yes3322Inactive side