Table 2.

Probabilities of the interactions of the fixed effects of the ANCOVA (A) Differences between modes

AngleT×ModeaT2×ModebT×L×ModecT2×L×Moded
Hip
   3-D 0.004 0.11 <0.0001 <0.0001
   XY0.22 <0.0001 0.0009 0.05
   XZ0.690.460.410.69
Knee
   3-D 0.007 0.76 <0.0001 <0.0001
   XY 0.01 0.63 <0.0001 0.0007
   XZ0.590.450.160.69
   YZ0.920.41 0.003 0.02
Ankle
   3-D0.060.66 0.0006 0.015
   XY 0.045 0.81 0.01 0.10
   XZ0.670.160.140.71
    YZ 0.96 0.67 0.03 0.11
(B) Angle profiles
Jumping Swimming
AngleTeT2fT×LgT2×LhTeT2fT×LgT2×Lh
Hip
   3-D <0.0001 0.440.270.053 <0.0001 0.11 <0.0001 <0.0001
   XY <0.0001 0.002 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.17 <0.0001 <0.0001
   XZ0.300.810.940.530.080.220.090.84
Knee
   3-D <0.0001 0.40 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.17 <0.0001 <0.0001
   XY <0.0001 0.54 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.09 <0.0001 <0.0001
   XZ0.200.240.750.550.150.49 0.001 0.28
   YZ 0.02 0.77 0.0002 0.0005 <0.0001 0.0017 0.200.93
Ankle
   3-D <0.0001 0.03 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0007 <0.0001 <0.0001
   XY <0.0001 0.10 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0002 <0.0001 <0.0001
   XZ0.460.15 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.570.78 <0.0001 0.0004
   YZ 0.02 0.36 0.005 0.004 <0.0001 0.0003 0.530.85
  • Values in bold are significant.

    (A) Differences between the two locomotor modes:

    (B) Angle profiles within the locomotor mode (swimming and jumping).

    When impulse (L) is added to the equation, a significant P-value then points to a significant change of linear

  • a increase in angle in time (T)

  • b quadratic change in time (T2)

  • c linear profile change with impulse (T×L) and

  • d quadratic profile change with impulse (T2×L)

  • e A significant P-value in the T column means that the joint angle increases significantly over time

  • f In the T2 column, a significant value shows a significant quadratic profile in the angle-time relationship

  • g (T×L) or quadratic

  • h (T2×L) profile with impulse