Table 1.

Scaling with body mass, m

y=amb
Dependent variable, yabL1L2bor2
Morphometrics (N=25)
drest (m)−0.40.40*0.360.440.330.94
hrest (m)−1.50.27*0.230.310.330.87
hrest/drest−1.1−0.16*−0.19−0.1200.73
s rest −0.90.80*0.720.890.660.94
l (m)−1.00.43*0.360.500.330.84
Kinematics (N=25)
f (Hz)−1.0−0.35*−0.41−0.2900.83
q −0.63−0.11*−0.15−0.0600.02
drange (m)−0.800.42*0.360.490.330.87
hrange (m)−1.20.380.300.460.330.66
θrange (rad)0.980.29*0.170.4200.03
Hydrodynamics (N=25) (jet model)
Dmax (N)−2.20.76*0.681.11.330.74
Tmax (N)−0.221.31.11.51.330.84
Amax (N)−0.501.31.11.51.330.87
Performance (N=18)
U (m s−1)−1.40.17*0.100.240.330.53
THCOT (J kg−1 m−1)−3.2−0.60*−0.92−0.310.05
  • a, scaling constant; b, scaling exponent (asterisks denote significant difference from bo); L1 lower limit of 95% confidence interval; L2 upper limit of 95% confidence interval; bo, null hypothesis; drest, resting bell diameter; hrest, resting bell height; srest, projected area of the bell at rest; l, length of the bell margin; f, pulse frequency; q, duty factor; drange, range of bell diameter; hrange, range of bell height; θrange, range of margin angle; Dmax, maximum drag; Tmax maximum thrust; Amax maximum acceleration reaction; U, swimming speed; THCOT, hydrodynamic cost of transport.