Table 2.

Variables measured during level and incline running

Speed (m s−1)
0.7 1.3 2.0
ConditionLevelInclineLevelInclineLevelIncline
LG
Peak force (N)20.9±1.929.9±4.226.7±3.935.5±2.933.6±3.4
Peak stress (kPa)23±234±631±439±537±4
Mean force (N)10.3±1.215.3±2.214.0±2.220.2±1.918.3±1.9
Net strain (%)−10.5±2.3−18.0±2.5−12.9±3.3−20.4±2.9−15.2±3.0
EMG intensity (%)38±455±957±467±1176±4
EMG duration (ms)169±20234±21127±15173±34125±13
Tendon energy (J kg−1)1.4±0.33.0±0.92.5±0.64.6±1.83.7±0.8
Net work (mJ)32.7±6.379.6±11.856.0±12.292.2±14.484.6±15.7
Net work (J kg−1)4.5±0.911.0±1.87.7±1.512.0±1.611.4±2.1
Δwork level versus incline (J kg−1)6.54.3
DF-IV
Peak force (N)9.3±1.111.4±1.211.9±1.113.3±1.613.6±1.4
Peak stress (kPa)92±17120±24117±18130±34123±22
Mean force (N)5.0±0.66.6±0.96.9±0.78.1±1.07.7±0.7
Net strain (%)−7.8±5.7−8.6±4.7−1.1±6.0−9.7±3.7−3.3±6.1
EMG intensity (%)41±657±655±765±764±6
EMG duration (ms)250±9260±19172±20197±7145±9
Tendon energy (J kg−1)11.5±4.515.5±4.014.2±2.321.1±8.820.0±6.7
Net work (mJ)0.4±3.18.5±5.4−1.9±5.39.8±6.7−1.3±4.9
Net work (J kg−1)0.7±1.64.7±3.4−0.8±2.75.3±4.3−0.3±2.7
Δwork level versus incline (J kg−1)4.06.1
  • Values are means + s.e.m.

    LG, lateral gastrocnemius muscle; DF-IV, digital flexor-IV, EMG, electromyographic activity.