Table 2.

Features of structurally coloured skin specimens examined

TaxonObserved colourObserved peak reflectance λmax (nm)Peak spatial frequency (nm-1)Fourier-predicted colourFourier-predicted peak reflectance λmax (nm)N
Casuariiformes
Casuariidae (cassowaries)
Dromaius novaehollandiae Light blue-0.0065Light blue4703
Anseriformes
Anatidae (ducks)
Oxyura jamaicensis Light blue4650.0053Yellow5804
Galliformes
Cracidae (guans)
Chaemapetes unicolor Dark blue-0.0076Dark blue3703
Numididae (guineafowl)
Numida meleagris Light blue-0.0063Light blue4407
Phasianidae (pheasants)
Tragopan temmincki Dark blue3520.0068Dark blue34017
Light blue4650.0065Light blue4808
Tragopan caboti Dark blue4490.0078Dark blue35012
Light blue4500.0067Dark blue3907
Orange6030.0051Yellow5808
Tragopan satyra Dark blue3660.0073Dark blue35016
Lophura bulweri Deep blue3400.0071Dark blue40019
Lophophorus impejanus Deep blue3500.0071Dark blue4007
Meleagris gallipavo Blue-0.0097Dark blue3303
Pelecaniformes
Sulidae (gannets and boobies)
Sula nebouxii Light blue-0.0065Dark blue41014
Ciconiiformes
Ardeidae (herons)
Pilherodius pileatus Light blue5790.0065Light blue48011
Syrigma sibilatrix Light blue5330.0059Light blue47026
Opisthocomiformes
Opisthocomidae (hoatzin)
Opisthocomus hoazin Blue-0.0083Ultraviolet3004
Cuculiformes
Cuculidae (cuckoos)
Coua caerulea Dark blue3990.0077UV-blue3603
Coua reynaudii Dark blue-0.0075Dark blue4007
Ceuthmochares aereus Yellow-0.0055Green53013
Trogoniformes
Trogonidae (trogons)
Apaloderma aequatoriale Yellow5300.0043Yellow6003
Piciformes
Ramphastidae (barbets and toucans)
Selenidera culik Turquoise4870.0057Turquoise4906
Ramphastos vitellinus
Facial skinBlue-0.0055Blue4404
RamphothecaBlue-0.0053Green5205
Ramphastos toco UV-blue3600.0057Dark blue40010
Yellow550-7500.0036Red7205
Passeriformes
Eurylaimidae (broadbills and asities)
Neodrepanis coruscans Dark blue4170.0082Ultraviolet349
Blue5170.0072Dark blue400
Neodrepanis hypoxantha Dark blue4030.0083Ultraviolet360
Light blue4650.0065Blue440
Philepitta castanea Light blue4830.0064Dark blue387
Green5280.0064Dark blue410
Thamnophilidae (antbirds)
Gymnopithys leucapsis Light blue-0.0105--4
Rhegmatorhina melanosticta Light blue-0.0136--4
Myrmeciza ferruginea Light blue-0.0053Light blue4804
Contingidae (cotingas)
Perissocephalus tricolor Dark blue-0.0068Light blue4705
Procnias nudicollis Green-0.0053Green5105
Platysteridae (wattle-eyes)
Dyaphorophyia concreta Yellow-green5350.0061Turquoise49010
Monarchidae (monarch flycatchers)
Terpsiphone mutata Dark blue-0.0083Dark blue3303
Sturnidae (starlings)
Leucopsar rothschildi Dark blue-0.0070Dark blue4304
  • Data reported for the three species of Eurylaimidae are from Prum et al. (1999a).

    N represents transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image sample size.