Table 3.

Maximum vertical pulling forces achieved by representatives of three Stenus species on various substrata

Maximum vertical pulling force (mN)
S. commaS. pubescensS. cicindeloides
Intact tarsi (N=20)
Glass0.092±0.071.369±0.371.207±0.36
Fresh Glyceria0.210±0.131.659±0.39-
Fresh Phragmites0.455±0.181.323±0.46-
Dry Phragmites1.071±0.191.236±0.271.171±0.31
Filter paper1.880±0.353.024±0.362.824±0.78
Claws removed (N=10)
Glass0.070±0.041.350±0.351.153±0.40
Fresh Glyceria0.079±0.041.551±0.30-
Fresh Phragmites0.086±0.061.049±0.34-
Dry Phragmites0.044±0.040.267±0.120.166±0.05
Filter paper0.073±0.070.660±0.340.517±0.09
Neutralized tenent setae (N=10)
Glass0.034±0.020.047±0.020.076±0.05
Fresh Glyceria0.092±0.040.106±0.03-
Fresh Phragmites0.223±0.110.210±0.07-
Dry Phragmites0.382±0.280.469±0.170.601±0.33
Filter paper1.456±0.391.751±0.502.476±0.72
  • Values are arithmetic means ± S.D.

    S. comma has slender tarsi; the other two species have wide tarsi. -, not measured.