Table 2.

Magnitude and distribution of oxygen stores in penguins

BirdRespiratory volume (ml kg-1)Total body oxygen (ml O2 kg-1)Respiratory system (%)Blood (%)Muscle (%)Measuring conditionSource
King penguin69*45233047RestrainedPonganis et al. (1999)
King penguin125*54352540Free-rangingPresent study
Adélie penguin165*55452926RestrainedKooyman et al. (1973), Kooyman and Ponganis (1998)
Adélie penguin200*61502624Free-rangingPresent study
  • * No correction for air in feathers. Kooyman et al. (1973) demonstrated that plumage air of restrained Adélie penguins was not more than 10% of the total air volume.