Table 1.

Results of a repeated-measures analysis of variance of launch kinematics in chipmunks, red squirrels and flying squirrels

ChipmunkRed squirrelFlying squirrelP
Joint timing and angles
Knee minimum angle (degrees)49.7±1.452.5±2.040.5±1.40.031
Knee maximum angle (degrees)110.0±1.7114.1±3.7104.0±2.90.300
Knee excursion angle (degrees)60.3±1.761.7±3.863.4±3.30.906
Ankle minimum angle (degrees)23.6±1.933.1±2.016.8±1.70.019
Ankle maximum angle (degrees)127.2±15.7133.5±5.4133.3±2.90.716
Ankle excursion angle (degrees)103.6±2.6100.4±5.3116.6±2.90.144
Tail minimum angle (degrees)126.7±8.6103.7±4.470.9±3.80.001*
Tail maximum angle (degrees)193.5±6.4118.1±5.9139.5±3.20.001*
Protraction angle at hand-off (degrees)46.9±1.043.0±0.847.2±1.10.142
Protraction angle at toe-off (degrees)57.5±11.960.3±9.759.8±2.00.746
Abduction angle at hand-off (degrees)67.6±2.154.1±1.864.4±2.60.172
Abduction angle at toe-off (degrees)56.5±2.341.3±2.871.5±2.10.001*
Time to hand-off (ms)30±2.020±1.960±5.00.001*
Elbow angle at hand-off (degrees)156.6±5.6168.1±4.6133.7±7.20.197
Elbow angle at toe-off (degrees)70.5±3.168.5±5.671.9±4.00.947
Wrist angle at hand-off (degrees)145.6±3.5156.9±2.7153.1±2.80.195
Wrist angle at toe-off (degrees)131.1±5.1138.1±3.8110.9±3.90.084
Performance variables
Take-off velocity (ms-1)2.3±0.053.0±0.082.5±0.060.001*
Horizontal range (m)1.6±0.042.3±0.071.9±0.050.002*
Take-off angle (degrees)9.7±2.521.0±2.212.0±2.60.402
Preparatory duration (ms)60±4.070±4.070±0.0050.808
CM+propulsive duration (ms)60±2.050±2.090±0.010.377
Total duration (ms)120±4.0130±5.0160±0.0060.061
  • Values are means ± S.E.M. (N=5 trials per individual, 5 individuals per species; thus N=25 for each mean).

    CM, counter movement.

    Significance following sequential Bonferroni correction is indicated by an asterisk.