Table 1.

Descriptive statistics for signal features and muscle activation during sound production

VariableMeanMinimumMaximumNumber of raspsNumber of individuals
Rasp duration (ms)103.7±5.719.20331.61406
Number of pulses per rasp6.9±0.42241396
Pulse duration (ms)1.7±0.030.613.01396
Pulse rate (Hz)76.7±3.224.1218.01396
Lateral promotor (active during 100% of rasps)1186
Onset (ms)-69.3±4.5-272.03.61186
Offset (ms)27.0±5.5-87.6356.81196
Percentage of rasp duration85.2±2.05.5100.01206
Medial promotor (active during 100% of rasps)824
Onset (ms)-134.4±9.5-518.9-16.8784
Offset (ms)92.7±12.2-36.3560.3784
Percentage of rasp duration95.0±1.716.0100.0824
Lateral levator (active during 98.4% of rasps)613
Onset (ms)-133.6±22.3-865.623.7563
Offset (ms)83.6±25.7-59.21006.0563
Percentage of rasp duration85.4±3.30100.0613
Depressor A (active during 59.2% of rasps)985
Onset (ms)18.4±5.0-79.0142.8585
Offset (ms)-10.2±7.4-169.6195.5585
Percentage of rasp duration17.4±2.90100.0985
Depressor C (active during 23.2% of rasps)1186
Onset (ms)-13.5±5.6-271.595.6916
Offset (ms)-26.2±6.0-243.0254.4916
Percentage of rasp duration23.3±3.00100.01186
Depressor D (active during 46.3% of rasps)1086
Onset (ms)9.8±3.0-40.488.0506
Offset (ms)-41.9±8.0-261.132.8506
Percentage of rasp duration9.0±1.90100.01086
  • Negative values of onset/offset indicate that the event occurred before onset/offset of sound production.

    Mean values are given ± S.E.M.