Table 1.

Body-segment properties of Rana pipiens

ProximalDistal
SegmentLength (mm)Width (mm)Depth (mm)Width (mm)Depth (mm)Mass (g)Volume (cm3)ρ (g cm-3)Ix (g cm2)Iy (g cm2)Iz (g cm2)
Pelvis23.114.912.110.110.93.63.31.12.53.14.2
Femur26.815.110.17.35.521.81.10.61.92.3
Tibiofibula30.77.34.954.81.41.21.20.21.21.4
Astrag.15.44.94.94.94.90.40.410.10.80.8
Foot284.94.94.94.90.50.51.10.10.20.2
Skull19.225.116.253.13.83.811.81.61.7
Trunk-spine20.225.217.418.112.110.39.41.15.34.77.2
  • The body was divided into 11 rigid-body segments (see Materials and methods): skull, trunk-spine, pelvis, two femoral, two tibiofibular, two astragalus—calcaneus (Astrag.) and two foot (metatarsals plus phalanges) segments. Segment length, the surface dimensions of the proximal and distal segment ends, mass, volume, density (ρ) and moments of inertia about the segment axes (Ix, Iy and Iz) were determined for each segment. Each value represents the mean of 4 frogs.