Table 1.

Comparison of gait aerodynamics

SpeciesSpeed (m s-1)Circulation (m2 s-1)Wing loading (kg m-2)GaitSource
Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)7.00.554.04c.v.3
Ringed turtle-dove (Streptopelia risoria)7.00.413.71c.v.4
Cockatiel (Nymphaticus hollandicus)7.00.322.51c.v.4
Pigeon (Columba livia)2.41.725.65v.r.1
Jackdaw (Corvus monedula)2.50.823.86v.r.2
Ringed turtle-dove (Streptopelia risoria)3.00.793.71v.r.4
Cockatiel (Nymphaticus hollandicus)3.00.412.51v.r.4
  • Gait: c.v., continuous vortex; v.r., vortex ring.

    1, Spedding et al. (1984); 2, Spedding (1986); 3, Spedding (1987); 4, present study.

    Circulation magnitude in the continuous-vortex gait is an average of circulation over the entire wingbeat cycle; circulation in the vortex-ring gait is an average of circulation during the downstroke.