TY - JOUR
T1 - Aerodynamics, kinematics, and energetics of horizontal flapping flight in the long-eared bat Plecotus auritus
JF - The Journal of Experimental Biology
JO - J. Exp. Biol.
SP - 179
LP - 212
VL - 65
IS - 1
AU - Norberg, U. M.
Y1 - 1976/08/01
UR - http://jeb.biologists.org/content/65/1/179.abstract
N2 - The kinematics, aerodynamics, and energetics of Plecotus auritus in slow horizontal flight, 2–35 m s-1, are analysed. At this speed the inclination of the stroke path is ca. 58 degrees to the horizontal, the stroke angle ca. 91 degrees, and the stroke frequency ca. 11-9 Hz. A method, based on steady-state aerodynamic and momenthum theories, is derived to calculate the lift and drag coefficients as averaged over the whole wing the whole wing-stroke for horizontal flapping flight. This is a further development of Pennycuick's (1968) and Weis-Fogh's (1972) expressions for calculating the lift coefficient. The lift coefficient obtained varies between 1-4 and 1-6, the drag coefficient between 0-4 and 1-2, and the lift:drag ratio between 1-2 and 4-0. The corresponding, calculated, total specific mechanical power output of the wing muscles varies between 27-0 and 40-4 W kg-1 body mass. A maximum estimate of mechanical efficiency is 0–26. The aerodynamic efficiency varies between 0–07 and 0–10. The force coefficient, total mechanical power output, and mechanical and aerodynamic efficiencies are all plausible, demonstrating that the slow flapping flight of Plecotus is thus explicable by steady-state aerodynamics. The downstroke is the power stroke for the vertical upward forces and the upstroke for the horizontal forward forces.
ER -