Table 7.

Estimated hallux and lateral toe biomechanical variables and 95% confidence limits for average and extreme toe lengths predicted using the multiple regression equations derived from the pressure plate running trials

Average individual with:Peak flexor force (N)Flexor impulse (Ns)Negative work (J)Positive work (J)
Hallux
   Shortest toes (58 mm)328 (167–488)24.4 (4.8–44.1)–1.8 (–3.4– –0.3)0.001 (0–0.27)
   Average toes (69 mm)442 (372–516)45.6 (36.7–54.4)–3.6 (–4.2– –2.9)0.24 (0.12–0.36)
   Longest toes (84 mm)602 (400–805)74.4 (49.6–99.2)–6.0 (–7.9– –4.0)0.57 (0.23–0.91)
Lateral toes
   Shortest toes (58 mm)67 (0–200)4.9 (0–19.7)–0.2 (–0.9–0)0.001 (0–0.06)
   Average toes (69 mm)160 (101–221)15.7 (9.0–22.4)–0.8 (–1.1– –0.5)0.04 (0.01–0.07)
   Longest toes (84 mm)289 (129–457)30.5 (11.8–49.2)–1.5 (–2.4– –0.7)0.1 (0.02–0.18)
  • Average values for body mass, contact time, forefoot contact time and toe-out angle are as in Table 2