Table 4.

Raw means, standard deviations and ranges of the five mechanical output variables in walking and running

Peak flexor force (N)Flexor impulse (Ns)Negative work (J)Positive work (J)
Force plate trials (single forefoot model)
   Walks1227±577 (473–2977)209±91 (58–366)–10.7±4.82 (–22.3– –0.54)0.70±0.49 (0.09–1.57)
   Runs1982±552 (850–3176)166±86 (62–519)–14.6±5.15 (–23.6– –6.6)0.87±1.32 (0.01–6.5)
   Difference755±541 (–34–2042–43.3±99.5 (–216–180)–3.9±6.33 (–22.12–5.44)+0.16±1.29 (–1.3–5.16)
Pressure plate trials – hallux data
   Walks362±318 (0–1334)53.7±81.4 (0–363.5)–2.44±2.97 (–13.5–0.00)0.04±0.12 (0.00–0.58)
   Runs449±169 (140–742)46.2±22.2 (15.7–108.9)–3.65±1.82 (–7.98– –1.13)0.23±0.30 (0.00–1.34)
   Difference+87±312.6 (–858–653)–7.5±80.5 (–312.8–100.6)–1.24±2.97 (–7.7–8.32)+0.19±0.32 (–0.41–1.34)
Pressure plate trials – lateral toe data
   Walks48±94 (0–315)4.5±9.0 (0–28.1)–0.20±0.42 (–1.42–0.42)0.007±0.03 (0.00–0.16)
   Runs162±151 (0–532.3)16.0±16.5 (0–56.6)–0.80±0.81 (–2.51–0.00)0.04±0.07 (0.00–0.26)
   Difference+113±129 (–73–469)+11.5±14.2 (–4.5–52.0)–0.60±0.66 (–2.31–0.05)+0.037±0.07 (–0.12–0.25)
  • Data are means ± s.d. Data for force and pressure plate trials are presented separately. Significant differences in the biomechanical variables between walks and runs are highlighted in bold