Table 1.

Absolute and relative lengths of lateral toes in male Homo, Pan and Australopithecus

Third toe length (mm)Fifth toe length (mm)Body mass (kg)Relative third toe length (mm/kg1/3)% Difference in relative third toe length vs Homo
H. sapiens (N=103)140.530.765410.10
P. troglodytes (N=37)165.448.850417.8+76%
A. afarensis (N=1)249.4341.845413.9+38%
  • Lateral toe lengths were obtained by adding the interarticular lengths of the proximal and intermediate phalanges. Relative toe length is length of third toe divided by the cube root of body mass

  • 1 Extant data collected for an unrelated study (C.P.R., manuscript in preparation)

  • 2 AL333-115, a partial male A. afarensis forefoot from Hadar, Ethiopia. Data from Latimer and colleagues (Latimer et al., 1982)

  • 3 Only the intermediate phalanges of digits four and five are preserved in AL333-115. Third intermediate phalanx length was estimated using the scaling relationship between fifth toe phalanges in AL333-115

  • 4 Extant estimates from Smith and Jungers (Smith and Jungers, 1997); A. afarensis estimate from McHenry (McHenry, 1992)