Table 1.

Summary data for C. paradisi aerial locomotion

Mean ± s.d.Min.Max.N
Snakes
Mass (g)40.5±23.13.082.714
Snout-vent length (cm)68.6±15.731.086.514
Tail length (cm)23.2±6.29.629.414
Wing loading (N m−2)29±9124611
Trajectory performance
Trajectory time analyzed (s)1.95±0.221.532.3714
Vertical distance analyzed (m)8.61±1.057.049.8614
Horizontal distance, total (m)10.14±2.696.2814.2914
Ballistic dive angle (degrees)57±3526214
Ballistic dive time (s)0.72±0.180.401.0313
Ballistic dive depth (m)2.32±1.120.955.2113
Shallowing rate (degrees s−1)20±6113614
Glide angle, min (degrees)28±10134614
Glide ratio, max2.2±1.11.04.214
Airspeed at takeoff (m s−1)1.7±0.60.82.814
Forward acceleration, initial (m s−2)7±151014
Sinking acceleration, initial (m s−2)6±231114
Horizontal acceleration, initial (m s−2)4±13614
Time at airspeed transition (s)1.11±0.310.631.6712
Time at sinking speed transition (s)0.93±0.220.531.3013
Time at horizontal speed transition (s)1.58±0.151.371.909
Airspeed at transition (m s−1)8.9±1.46.111.012
Sinking speed at transition (m s−1)6.1±0.74.57.213
Horizontal speed at transition (m s−1)8.3±1.16.39.79
Airspeed, max (m s−1)10.0±0.98.111.013
Sinking speed, max (m s−1)6.4±0.84.97.313
Horizontal speed, max (m s−1)8.1±0.96.49.313
Behavior
Undulation period (s)0.77±0.140.501.0013
Undulation frequency (Hz)1.4±0.31.02.013
Undulation wavelength (m)0.20±0.070.180.255
Undulation wave speed (m s−1)0.24±0.030.220.263
Undulation wave height, head (cm)0.13±0.040.050.1913
Undulation wave height, vent (cm)0.23±0.070.090.3212
Undulation wave height, head (% SVL)20±3152513
Undulation wave height, vent (% SVL)34±5244312