Table 1.

Source parameters from wild and trained Grampus and Pseudorca with maximum values from trained Tursiops for comparison

SLpp (dB re. 1 μPa, pp)220 (202—222)200 (170—216)220 (201—225)220 (155—225)225
SLrms (dB re. 1 μPa, rms)207 (190—210)NA208 (190—215)NA210
SLE (dB re. 1 μPa2 s)164 (147—166)NA163 (145—168)NA167
τ (μ)40 (30—75)50 (40—70)30 (18—55)30—5050
f0 (kHz)75 (58—91)57 (53—83)49 (33—68)NA100
fp (kHz)49 (42—110)48 (27—104)40 (26—79)30—125115
RMS-BW (kHz)25 (19—31)2520 (12—29)NA25
—3 dB BW (kHz)27 (15—84)40 (30—84)35 (15—76)5—8050
—10 dB BW (kHz)66 (20—124)10063 (39—89)NA60
  • Values give range. NA, not available.

    SL, source level; pp, peak to peak; rms, root mean square; E, energy flux density; τ, signal duration; f0, centroid frequency; fp, peak frequency; RMS-BW, rms bandwidth.

    Data for the trained Grampus are from Philips et al. (2003).

    Data for the trained Pseudorcas are from Thomas et al. (1988a), Thomas and Turl (1990), Brill et al. (1992) and Au et al. (1995).

    Data for Tursiops are from Au (1993).