Table 1.

Maximum relative running speed (Vmax/Lb), body mass (Mb), and body length (Lb) of the 142 mammal species used in this study

SpeciesBody mass (kg)Body length (m)Maximum relative running speed (body length s-1)References
Proboscidae
Loxodonta africana 60006.751.402,7
Elephas maximus 40005.951.181,2
Perissodactyla
Ceratotherium simum 20003.781.795,7
Diceros bicornis 12003.383.605,7
Equus caballus 3502.507.565,7
Equus zebra 3002.357.352,7
Tapirus bairdii 2502.08*5.185,6
Equus burchelli 2352.328.165,7
Equus hemionus 2002.258.405,7
Artiodactyla
Hippopotamus amphibius 38003.981.702,7
Giraffa cameolopardalis 10754.273.805,7
Bison bison 8652.805.405,7
Bos sauveli 8002.163.622,7
Syncerus caffer 6202.755.605,7
Camelus dromedarius 5502.853.035,7
Taurotragus oryx 5112.637.205,7
Alces alces 3842.775.475,7
Cervus elaphus 3002.159.042,7
Connochaetes gnu 3002.21*10.972,6
Hippotragus equinus 226.52.286.655,7
Connochaetes taurinis 2161.98*10.885,6
Alcelaphus buselaphus 1361.9810.945,7
Damaliscus lunatus 1301.6311.635,7
Oreamnos americanus 113.51.406.365,7
Rangifer tarandus 1001.7012.715,7
Lama guanacoe 951.738.775,7
Ovis canadensis nelsoni 851.458.961,5
Phacochoerus aethiopicus 851.2012.382,7
Odocoileus hemionus 741.39*11.875,6
Capra caucasia 701.587.712,7
Ovis ammon 651.5010.802,7
Gazella granti 62.51.31*16.675,6
Odocoileus virginianus 571.27*13.595,6
Dama dama 551.5311.515,7
Aepyceros melampus 53.251.309.765,7
Antilocapra americana 501.2521.602,5,7
Capreolus capreolus 501.2313.172,7
Rupicapra rupicapra 501.109.822,7
Antilope cervicapra 37.51.2023.635,7
Saiga tatarica 351.2018.005,7
Antidorcas marsupialis 341.3020.152,7
Gazella subgutturosa 301.03*25.512,6
Procapra gutturosa 301.2217.782,7
Capra aegagrus 301.408.682,7
Gazella thomsonii 20.50.904*24.195,6
Madoqua kirki 50.62018.295,7
Carnivora
Ursus maritimus 2652.354.601,7
Ursus arctos 251.32.255.765,7
Panthera tigris 1612.107.205,7
Panthera leo 155.81.958.175,7
Carnivora
Ursus americanus 93.41.657.851,5
Acinonyx jubatus 58.81.3122.675,7
Panthera pardus 52.41.4111.495,7
Crocuta crocuta 521.3013.465,7
Canis lupus 35.31.2214.135,7
Hyaena hyaena 26.81.1112.135,7
Canis familiaris 250.966*18.732,6
Lycaon pictus 200.94020.112,7
Canis latrans 13.30.87520.065,7
Meles meles 11.60.73611.015,7
Canis aureus 8.80.83018.225,7
Procyon lotor 70.50812.775,7
Canis mesomelas o adustus 70.631*25.662,6
Vulpes fulva 4.80.67828.695,7
Nasua narica 4.40.54013.505,7
Urocyon cinereoargenteus 3.70.58429.595,7
Mephitis mephitis 2.50.33013.095,7
Primates
Gorilla gorilla 1271.66*5.202,6
Homo sapiens 701.367.932,7
Presbytis 130.51519.402,7
Rodentia
Marmota monax 40.4509.602,7
Uromys caudimaculatus 1.180.27016.634,7
Sciurus niger 1.0780.338*19.174,6
Spermophilopsis leptodactylus 0.60.278*34.982,6
Spermophilus undulatus 0.60.278*19.432,6
Spermophilus citellus 0.50.261*18.592,6
Sciurus carolinensis 0.50.261*30.984,6
Sciurus vulgaris and persicus 0.40.243*22.252,6
Spermophilus beldingi 0.30.220*15.922,6
Rattus 0.250.19013.782,7
Spermophilus saturatus 0.2220.199*30.064,6
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus 0.220.19820.512,7
Spermophilus tridecemlineatus 0.1250.164*20.024,6
Spermophilus tereticaudus 0.11260.159*25.823,6
Neotoma lepida 0.11060.19024.303,7
Mesocricetus brandti 0.110.17513.892,7
Tamias striatus 0.10.32314.212,7
Dipodomys deserti 0.09760.152*26.733,6
Ammospermophilus leucurus 0.07590.15330.453,7
Pseudomys nanus 0.0610.130*30.024,6
Zymomys argurus 0.06050.13125.564,7
Dipodomys microps 0.0560.126*45.052,6
Tamias amoenus 0.0510.12242.941,4
Microtus pennsylvanicus 0.050.121*24.512,6
Pseudomys australis 0.050.121*36.544,6
Heteromys dasmarestianus 0.050.14822.884,7
Dipodomys ordii 0.04780.119*31.893,6
Lyomis pictus 0.0420.11640.034,7
Chaetodipus baileyi 0.03910.112*29.993,6
Dipodomys merriami 0.0350.108*80.312,6
Notomys cervinus 0.0350.108*35.144,6
Pitymys pinetorum 0.030.102*17.972,6
Tamias minimus 0.02930.101*44.743,6
Rodentia
Zapus trinotatus 0.02850.100*38.444,6
Peromyscus leucopus 0.0250.0961*30.892,6
Napeozapus insignis 0.0250.090025.802,7
Notomys alexis 0.02450.0955*37.044,6
Perognathus parvus 0.02440.0954*35.393,6
Peromyscus eremicus 0.01980.0889*39.773,6
Peromyscus truei 0.01930.0882*43.783,6
Onychomys torridus 0.01930.11524.293,1
Peromyscus maniculatus 0.01820.0865*41.843,6
Chaetodipus fallax 0.0180.0862*40.123,6
Zapus hudsonicus 0.0180.0862*27.892,6
Pseudomys hermannbergensis 0.0180.0862*39.494,6
Mus musculus 0.0160.080043.882,7
Leggadina forresti 0.01550.082041.514,7
Peromyscus crinitus 0.01370.0786*39.143,6
Microdipodops megacephalus 0.01230.075938.793,7
Perognathus longimembris 0.00890.0681*39.263,6
Lagomorpha
Lepus arcticus 4.60.549*31.492,6
Lepus alleni 4.40.541*35.962,6
Lepus europeus 40.52437.121,2
Lepus townsendii 3.50.501*30.192,6
Lepus californicus 20.41541.591,2
Oryctolagus cuniculus 1.90.40037.802,7
Lepus americanus 1.50.37735.771,2
Sylvilalagus 1.50.34331.492,7
Marsupialia
Macropus spp501.22*14.424,6
Macropus eugenii 40.47722.641,4
Bettongia penicilata 1.10.36518.354,7
Potorus tridactylus 0.9980.32917.564,7
Isoodon obesulus 0.7180.32012.074,7
Dasyuroides byrnei 0.120.22531.684,7
Monodelphis brevicaudata 0.07450.15919.864,7
Antechinus flavipes 0.0520.15529.031,4
Antechinus stuardii 0.03150.123*39.264,6
Antechinomys laniger 0.0250.104*38.764,6
Sminthopsis macroura 0.020.0961*40.544,6
Sminthopsis crassicaudata 0.0170.0892*34.824,6
Cercatetus concinnus 0.0150.084515.924,7
Myrmecobius fasciatus 0.480.095039.604,7
  • Body mass and body length estimates correspond to those of average adult specimens.

    Source of data on body mass, body length, and maximum running speed are indicated for each species: 1, Eisenberg (1981); 2, Garland (1983); 3, Djawdan and Garland (1988); 4, Garland et al. (1988); 5, Garland and Janis (1993); 6, Silva (1998); 7, Nowak (1999).

  • * Values obtained from Silva's (1998) allometric equation.