Table 1.

In vivo stroke power and work output for cyclical muscle contractions during locomotion

Muscle(s)ActivityStroke power (W kg-1)Stroke work (J kg-1)Reference
Scallop adductorSwimming12020Marsh et al. (1992)
Pigeon pectoralisFlying (steady-speed)13010Biewener et al. (1998a)
Quail pectoralisFlying (take-off)56017.7Askew et al. (2001)
Turkey hindlimb extensorsAcceleration15026This study
  • Values presented are per unit muscle mass.

    Scallop values are calculated from values for the first cycle in a swim of Chlamys hastata, 62 W kg-1, and a reported stroke time of 51% of the cycle. Pigeon (Columba livia) values are calculated from the reported power output during steady flight, 70 W kg-1, and the fraction of the wingbeat cycle spent in downstroke, 0.63. Quail (Coturnix Chinensis) power output is calculated from the mean power reported for a complete wingbeat cycle in take-off (390 W kg-1) and the fraction of the wingbeat cycle spent in downstroke, 0.70.