Previously, it was concluded that the nervous systems of the juvenile snails were not capable of mediating LTM. However, exposure and training of those juvenile snails in the presence of a predator cue significantly altered their ability to learn and form LTM. In addition, there are some strains of Lymnaea which have been identified as ‘smart’. These snails form LTM significantly better than the lab-bred strain. Here we show that juveniles of two smart snail strains are not only capable of associative learning, but also have the capacity to form LTM following a single 0.5h training session. We also show that freshly collected ‘wild’ ‘average’ juveniles are also not able to form LTM. Thus, the smart snail phenotype in these strains is expressed in juveniles.
- Received August 4, 2016.
- Accepted November 11, 2016.
- © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd