1. The respiratory exchange of the fresh-water crab Potamonautes is almost entirely localised in the gills.
2. This crab can respire and survive in water and in air.
3. In water the ventilation of the gills by the activity of the scaphognathite is indispensable to the maintenance of respiratory exchange.
4. In air the scaphognathite is unimportant; simple diffusion suffices to renew the supply of oxygen at the gills.
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