Table of Contents
- Heart rate regulation in diving sea lions: the vagus nerve rules
Summary: Review of the literature and heart rate profiles of diving California sea lions emphasizes the dominance of the parasympathetic nervous system in heart rate regulation and the unlikelihood of morbid arrhythmias.
- Mechanics of the thorax in flies
Summary: An overview of the structure and mechanics of thorax in insects, with specific emphasis on flies. We specifically explore how the flight apparatus has evolved to meet the steep demands of flight in smaller insects.
- Double cuticle barrier in two global pests, the whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum and the bedbug Cimex lectularius
Summary: Permeability of the insect cuticular inward barrier for xenobiotics (possibly including pollutants and insecticides) is regionalised.
- Caspase-3 and GFAP as early markers for apoptosis and astrogliosis in shRNA-induced hippocampal cytotoxicity
Summary: The identification of reliable markers, such as increased Casp-3 and GFAP expression, allows monitoring of shRNA-induced tissue stress or neurotoxicity even before the onset of cellular degeneration.
METHODS & TECHNIQUES
- Transgenic line for the identification of cholinergic release sites in Drosophila melanogaster
Summary: A new transgenic Drosophila melanogaster line for the cell-type-specific identification of cholinergic release sites expands the available methods toolbox for discerning the neurotransmitter systems in the fly nervous system.
- Archer fish jumping prey capture: kinematics and hydrodynamics
Highlighted Article: Archer fish are unique aquatic predators capable of jumping multiple body lengths straight up out of the water using oscillatory caudal fin kinematics, in concert with other fins, for propulsion and stabilization.
- Does the membrane pacemaker theory of metabolism explain the size dependence of metabolic rate in marine mussels?
Summary: The membrane pacemaker theory of metabolism applies only to systemic functions in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis.
- Separation of different pollen types by chemotactile sensing in Bombus terrestris
Summary: Chemotactile stimulation established while recording antennal receptor activity in bumblebees demonstrates that different pollen types evoked significantly distinct neural activity already at the antennal receptor level.
- Reduction in activity by noxious chemical stimulation is ameliorated by immersion in analgesic drugs in zebrafish
- Thermal acclimation and subspecies-specific effects on heart and brain mitochondrial performance in a eurythermal teleost (Fundulus heteroclitus)
Summary: Heart and brain mitochondrial performance declines following acclimation to thermal extremes in killifish, which suggests that organismal performance at thermal extremes is, at least in part, constrained by mitochondrial performance.
- Diel rhythms and sex differences in the locomotor activity of hawkmoths
Summary: Analysis of circadian rhythmicity in the locomotor activity of two hawkmoth species (Manduca sexta and Hyles lineata) reveals consistent sex differences in the timing of activity.
- miR-29a modulates SCD expression and is regulated in response to a saturated fatty acid diet in juvenile genetically improved farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Summary: miR-29a targets SCD 3′ UTR directly. Inhibition of miR-29a could mediate conversion of C16:0 and C18:0 to C16:1 and C18:1, respectively, and activate serum insulin and glucose uptake in GIFT by increasing SCD.
- Muscle biochemistry of a pelagic delphinid (Stenella longirostris longirostris): insight into fishery-induced separation of mothers and calves
Highlighted Article: Physiological investigations advance our understanding of the postnatal development of the muscle physiology that supports diving and swimming in cetaceans, and provide insight into the vulnerability of marine mammals to perturbations.
- Exercise training reveals trade-offs between endurance performance and immune function, but does not influence growth, in juvenile lizards
Summary: Forcing allocation to performance with exercise training revealed sex-specific trade-offs in juvenile green anole lizards.
- Saccadic movement strategy in a semiaquatic species – the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina)
Summary: Harbour seals perform head and body saccades, which have previously only been described for terrestrial species; thereby, they might optimize distance estimation from optic flow or reduce motion blur.
- Energy cost of isometric force production after active shortening in skinned muscle fibres
Summary: Force depression observed after active shortening does not influence the metabolic cost of muscle contraction. Force depression is likely associated with a decrease in the proportion of attached cross-bridges.
- Prior social experience affects the behavioral and neural responses to acute alcohol in juvenile crayfish
- How do individuals cope with stress? Behavioural, physiological and neuronal differences between proactive and reactive coping styles in fish
Summary: Fish characterised with opposite coping styles show telencephalic region-specific differences associated with their behavioural responses to stimuli.
- Flipper stroke rate and venous oxygen levels in free-ranging California sea lions
Summary: Flipper stroke rate has little impact on posterior vena caval oxygen depletion patterns in diving California sea lions. Use of a stroke–glide strategy also contributes to minimization of work effort.