The ability to produce sound has been known for decades in Balistidae. Sounds of many species have been recorded and a variety of sound-producing mechanisms have been proposed, including teeth stridulation, collision of the buccal teeth and movements of the fins. The best-supported hypothesis involves movements of the pectoral fin against the lateral part of the swimbladder, called a drumming membrane. In this study, we describe for the first time the sounds made by the blackbar triggerfish Rhinecanthus aculeatus, which are like short drum rolls with an average duration of 85 ms, 193 Hz dominant frequency and 136 dB SPL level at 3 cm distance. The sounds are a series of pulses that result from alternate sweeping movements of the right and left pectoral fins, which push a system of three scutes that are forced against the swimbladder wall. Pulses from each fin occur in consecutive pairs. High-speed videos indicate that each pulse consists of two cycles. The first part of each cycle corresponds to the inward buckling of the scutes, whereas the second part of the cycle corresponds to an apparent passive recoil of the scutes and swimbladder wall. This novel sound production mechanism is probably found in many members of Balistidae because these peculiar scutes occur in other species in the family. Comparison of sound characteristics from fishes of different sizes shows that dominant frequency decreases with size in juveniles but not in adults.
The authors declare no competing or financial interests.
E.P., L.K. and D.L. designed the study; X.R., K.B., S.V. and L.K. carried out the experiments; K.B. performed μCT scans; X.R., S.V. and L.K. performed high-speed camera experiments; X.R. and E.P. analyzed the data; E.P., L.K. and X.R. wrote the manuscript. All authors gave final approval for publication.
This research was funded by a grant from the Agence Nationale de la Recherche [ANR-16-ACHN-0006-01 to S.V.W. and ANR-11-JSV7-012-01 to X.R. and D.L.] and by a grant from the Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS [T.0056.13 to E.P.].
Supplementary information available online at http://jeb.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/jeb.146514.supplemental
- Received July 26, 2016.
- Accepted October 17, 2016.
- © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd