Ocean acidification is a major threat to calcifying marine organisms such as deep-sea cold-water corals (CWCs), but related knowledge is scarce. The aragonite saturation threshold (Ωa) for calcification, respiration and organic matter fluxes were investigated experimentally in the Mediterranean Madrepora oculata. Over 10 weeks, colonies were maintained under two feeding regimes (uptake of 36.75 and 7.46 µmol C polyp−1 week−1) and exposed in 2 week intervals to a consecutively changing air–CO2 mix (pCO2) of 400, 1600, 800, 2000 and 400 ppm. There was a significant effect of feeding on calcification at initial ambient pCO2, while with consecutive pCO2 treatments, feeding had no effect on calcification. Respiration was not significantly affected by feeding or pCO2 levels. Coral skeletons started to dissolve at an average Ωa threshold of 0.92, but recovered and started to calcify again at Ωa≥1. The surplus energy required to counteract dissolution at elevated pCO2 (≥1600 µatm) was twice that at ambient pCO2. Yet, feeding had no mitigating effect at increasing pCO2 levels. This could be due to the fact that the energy required for calcification is a small fraction (1–3%) of the total metabolic energy demand and corals even under low food conditions might therefore still be able to allocate this small portion of energy to calcification. The response and resistance to ocean acidification are consequently not controlled by feeding in this species, but more likely by chemical reactions at the site of calcification and exchange processes between the calicoblastic layer and ambient seawater.
The authors declare no competing or financial interests.
Conceptualization: C.M., J.-P.G., M.W.; Methodology: C.M., C.W., P.P., N.S., J.-P.G., M.W.; Formal analysis and investigation: C.M., P.P., N.S.; Writing – original draft preparation: C.M.; Writing – review and editing: C.M., J.-P.G., C.W., M.W., N.S.; Funding acquisition: J.-P.G., M.W., C.M.; Resources: J.-P.G., M.W., C.M.; Supervision. J.-P.G., M.W., C.W., C.M.
This work was financially supported by the European Commission through a Marie-Curie Fellowship to C.M. (MECCA, project no 220299) and the project COMP via the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation. N.S. acknowledges support by the German Academic Exchange Service (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst, DAAD). This work is a contribution to the ‘European Project on Ocean Acidification’ (EPOCA) which received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007–2013) under grant agreement no. 211384.
Supplementary information available online at http://jeb.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/jeb.127159.supplemental
- Received June 24, 2015.
- Accepted July 25, 2016.
- © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd