Table of Contents
- Mechanosensory signaling as a potential mode of communication during social interactions in fishes
Summary: Many fish social behaviors generate water movements that are detectable by the lateral line system of nearby conspecifics, suggesting that mechanosensory signaling may be an important mode of communication during social interactions such as reproduction, aggression and parental care.
- Photoreception and vision in the ultraviolet
Summary: Humans are blind to ultraviolet light, but most animals have a well-developed sensitivity to this very short-wavelength range. This Review focuses on how ultraviolet photoreceptors commonly contribute to high-level visual function and are used in both color and polarization vision.
- Shoaling reduces metabolic rate in a gregarious coral reef fish species
Highlighted Article: Group living reduces metabolic rate in a shoaling damselfish species, while isolation reduces body condition. Social isolation due to environmental disturbance may therefore have physiological consequences for gregarious species.
- Thyroid hormone influences muscle mechanics in carp (Cyprinus carpio) independently from SERCA activity
Summary: Thyroid hormone plays a key role in maintaining normal levels of skeletal muscle force production in carp, but this is not mediated via SERCA.
- Neuromuscular effort predicts walk–run transition speed in normal and adapted human gaits
Summary: Interlimb asymmetry changes the walk–run transition speed on a split-belt treadmill with speed or direction differences between legs; leg muscle activation (neuromuscular effort) predicts both novel and normal transition speeds.
- It's all in the gills: evaluation of O2 uptake in Pacific hagfish refutes a major respiratory role for the skin
Summary: Despite being a highly specialized transport epithelium, the skin of Pacific hagfish does not contribute substantially to O2 uptake even when branchial O2 uptake is severely impaired.
METHODS & TECHNIQUES
- Smart Mechanical Dipole: a device for the measurement of sphere motion in behavioral and neurophysiological experiments
Summary: Development of a Smart Mechanical Dipole device that provides real-time measurement of vibrating sphere motion along three dimensions (amplitude, direction, signal phase) and can be used to obtain an accurate stimulation trace in physiological experiments.
- Navigating under sea ice promotes rapid maturation of diving physiology and performance in beluga whales
Highlighted Article: Analysis of the development of muscle biochemistry that supports breath-holding in belugas reveals that, compared with other cetaceans, they are born with a high myoglobin content that matures rapidly.
- Differences in spectral selectivity between stages of visually guided mating approaches in a buprestid beetle
Summary: The stereotypical visually guided mating approaches of male buprestid beetles include two stages that use different spectral cues.
- Archerfish fast-start decisions can take an additional variable into account
Summary: Speed and accuracy of a decision typically decline when the number of alternatives increases. The fast-start decisions of hunting archerfish appear to break this rule and are robust against massively increasing complexity.
- Effect of temperature on chemosensitive locus coeruleus neurons of savannah monitor lizards, Varanus exanthematicus
Summary: CO2 chemosensitivity is temperature dependent in savannah monitor lizards, where the proportion of locus coeruleus neurons excited or inhibited by CO2 changes with changes in temperature.
- Morphine addiction in ants: a new model for self-administration and neurochemical analysis
Highlighted Article: Our model, ants, provides an opportunity to study addiction in a highly social species and establishes ants as the first linked behavioral and neurochemical model of invertebrate opioid addiction.
- Multiple sensory modalities used by squid in successful predator evasion throughout ontogeny
Summary: The lateral line analogue of squid contributes to successful escape response at the earliest life stages and continues to increase successful evasion by aiding visual cues in juvenile and adult squid.
- Cardiac reflexes in a warming world: thermal plasticity of barostatic control and autonomic tones in a temperate fish
Summary: Perch from a chronically warmed ecosystem exhibit profound thermal compensation of resting heart rate through increased cholinergic tone and heightened baroreflex sensitivity; the latter may safeguard tissue perfusion pressure when tissue oxygen demand is elevated by environmental warming.
- Repeatability of locomotor performance and morphology–locomotor performance relationships
Summary: Repeatability of an individual's performance is necessary for performance evolution. Variation in age and sex affects estimates of repeatability and the contribution of morphology to performance changes with age.
- Discrimination of fast click-series produced by tagged Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) for echolocation or communication
Summary: Discrimination of two kinds of fast click-series produced by Risso's dolphins identifies that terminal buzzes are used for biosonar-based foraging and isolated burst pulses emitted outside of foraging are likely used for communication.
- Automatic control: the vertebral column of dogfish sharks behaves as a continuously variable transmission with smoothly shifting functions
Highlighted Article: Characterization of non-linear elasticity and viscosity throughout the bending oscillation reveals that the shark vertebral column behaves as both a spring and a brake, with smooth transitions between them for continuously variable power transmission.
- Ergonomics of load transport in the seed harvesting ant Messor barbarus: morphology influences transportation method and efficiency
Summary: Investigation of load transportation efficiency in ants shows that it depends on both their morphology and the transportation method they use, i.e. carrying or dragging.
- Spatial learning in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: preference for vertical over horizontal information
Summary: Vertical and horizontal information is separated in a marine invertebrate, the common cuttlefish, with priority given to vertical information.
- Maternal basking regime has complex implications for birthdate and offspring phenotype in a nocturnally foraging, viviparous gecko
Summary: Basking opportunity strongly affects maternal thermoregulation and gestation length in a ‘nocturnal’ gecko; spontaneously born offspring from a cool regime are small, but consistent phenotypic effects from delayed parturition are lacking.
- Hormonal and metabolic responses to upper temperature extremes in divergent life-history ecotypes of a garter snake
Summary: Snakes from divergent life-history ecotypes are affected similarly in their response to high temperatures, which induce a physiological stress response and affect energy-regulation pathways.
- Jaw morphology and fighting forces in stag beetles
Summary: A large diversity of jaw morphologies and bite forces exists in the stag beetle family; species with a forceful bite have more robust jaws that prevent elevated material stress while biting during fights.