Table of Contents
- Prevention of muscle wasting and osteoporosis: the value of examining novel animal models
Summary: Understanding the biology of animals that experience natural periods of disuse but suffer little musculoskeletal atrophy may reveal novel regulatory factors and lead to new therapeutics.
- The plasticity of extracellular fluid homeostasis in insects
Summary: This Review examines the volume and osmotic concentration of the hemolymph in aquatic, terrestrial and gorging insects. Solute–volume plots illustrate the particular challenges to the hemolymph and the physiological responses.
- Diazotrophs: a non-negligible source of nitrogen for the tropical coral Stylophora pistillata
Summary: Nitrogen limits coral productivity in tropical waters; diazotrophs represent an important source of nitrogen for scleractinian corals.
- Divergence of the diapause transcriptome in apple maggot flies: winter regulation and post-winter transcriptional repression
Summary: Transcriptomics reveals that summer emergence timing of flies is regulated during winter, while initial transcriptional responses to post-winter warming are largely suppressed.
- Increased fat catabolism sustains water balance during fasting in zebra finches
Highlighted Article: Water balance of birds fasting without water is maintained mainly by elevated fat catabolism, which generates 6 times more metabolic water compared with that for birds with access to water.
- The orphan pentameric ligand-gated ion channel pHCl-2 is gated by pH and regulates fluid secretion in Drosophila Malpighian tubules
Summary: A pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (pLGIC) regulates fluid secretion in Drosophila Malpighian (renal) tubules by modulating chloride transport in response to luminal pH, indicating a novel role for pLGICs beyond neurotransmission.
- Visual abilities in two raptors with different ecology
Summary: Differences in visual acuity, foveal specialization and visual field between Harris's hawks, Parabuteo unicinctus, and black kites, Milvus migrans, may reflect differences in the perceptual demands of their foraging behaviours.
- Pelvic girdle mobility of cryptodire and pleurodire turtles during walking and swimming
Summary: Despite enclosure of the pelvis in a shell, cryptodire turtles show substantial pelvic movements during walking and swimming that enhance limb excursion and may influence ecological traits of the clade.
- Effects of support diameter and compliance on common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) gait kinematics
Highlighted Article: Marmosets show convergent and divergent kinematic responses to perturbations in support diameter and compliance, suggesting that compliance is a critical – yet understudied – environmental determinant of arboreal locomotor performance.
- Rapid proteomic responses to a near-lethal heat stress in the salt marsh mussel Geukensia demissa
Summary: After exposure to an acute and near-lethal heat stress, gill from the mussel Geukensia demissa responds immediately with a coordinated time course of changes in protein abundance.
- Determining position, velocity and acceleration of free-ranging animals with a low-cost unmanned aerial system
Summary: A novel, accurate and low-cost drone based method for determining position, velocity and acceleration from ranging subjects in field data collection.
- Shoulder girdle rotation, forelimb movement and the influence of carapace shape on locomotion in Testudo hermanni (Testudinidae)
Summary: X-ray fluoroscopy of shoulder girdle and forelimb movements in Testudo hermanni identifies kinematic mechanisms that enhance locomotor performance within the inherent framework of structural and physiological constraints of Testudines.
- How moths escape bats: predicting outcomes of predator–prey interactions
Summary: Three-dimensional reconstructions of bat–insect interactions reveal that prey survive chases by escaping into ‘safety zones’ that flank predators.
- Dietary antioxidants and flight exercise in female birds affect allocation of nutrients to eggs: how carry-over effects work
Highlighted Article: Endurance flight and supplementation with water-soluble antioxidants both affect the composition of zebra finch eggs; such carry-over effects have implications for wild migratory birds.
- Reversibility of developmental heat and cold plasticity is asymmetric and has long-lasting consequences for adult thermal tolerance
Summary: Using Drosophila melanogaster, we show how developmental plasticity of cold tolerance is completely reversible in the adult stage, while adult acclimation in heat tolerance is constrained by developmental temperature.
- Patterns of variation in feeding strike kinematics of juvenile ghost praying mantis (Phyllocrania paradoxa): are components of the strike stereotypic?
Summary: Praying mantises modulate stereotypic components of their feeding strike through the flexibility in the coxa–prothorax joint and amount of lunge from the mesothoracic and metathoracic legs.
- Bioenergetic and volume regulatory effects of mitoKATP channel modulators protect against hypoxia–reoxygenation-induced mitochondrial dysfunction
Summary: Both opening of mitoKATP channels and bioenergetic effects of pharmacological channel modulators protect against hypoxia–reoxygenation stress in fish mitochondria.
- Learning about natural variation of odor mixtures enhances categorization in early olfactory processing
Summary: Natural odors vary in composition among objects, which could confound categorization with regard to common meanings. Plasticity in early olfactory processing enables efficient use of the coding space to solve this categorization problem.
- High rates of glucose utilization in the gas gland of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) are supported by GLUT1 and HK1b
Summary: High rates of glucose metabolism in gas glands of Atlantic cod are supported by GLUT1 and HKIb, a hexokinase paralogue that should not bind to mitochondria.