The proton-translocating ATPase (H(+)-ATPase) found on the membrane of the yeast vacuole is the best characterized member of the V-type ATPase family. Biochemical and genetic screens have led to the identification of 14 genes, the majority designated VMA (for vacuolar membrane ATPase) encoding subunits of the enzyme complex. At least eight genes encode for proteins comprising the peripherally associated catalytic V(1) subcomplex, and six genes code for proteins forming the proton-translocating membrane V(o) subcomplex. Several additional genes have been identified that encode proteins that are not part of the final V-ATPase complex yet are required for its assembly. These non-subunit Vma proteins function as dedicated V-ATPase assembly factors since their absence appears to inhibit assembly of the V-ATPase only. The assembly factors designated Vma12p, Vma21p and Vma22p have been localized to the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum and aid the association of newly synthesized V-ATPase subunits translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Two of these proteins, Vma12p and Vma22p, function together in an assembly complex that interacts directly with nascent V-ATPase subunits.
- © 2000 by Company of Biologists